By K. Hillner
The pre-eminent nineteenth century British ethicist, Henry Sidgwick as soon as acknowledged: "All vital moral notions also are mental, other than maybe the elemental antitheses of 'good' and 'bad' and 'wrong', with which psychology, because it treats of what's and never of what must be, isn't really at once involved" (quoted in T.N. Tice and T.P. Slavens, 1983). Sidgwick's assertion might be interpreted to intend that psychology is appropriate for ethics or that mental wisdom contributes to the development of a moral fact. This interpretation serves because the simple impetus to this e-book, yet Sidgwick's assertion can be analyzed intimately to illustrate why a present exposition at the relevance of psychology for moral fact is important and germane.
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Additional info for A Psychological Approach to Ethical Reality
First order precepts in effect deal with the material permissibility of acts. 2. Second order moral judgments pertain to the rightness or wrongness of an individual in performing a certain act. The reference point is the doer. What is at issue is the culpability or inculpability of the doer. An act in this context is more than an objective event in the universe: one or more aspects of the doer, such as its motive, intention, goal, desire, and the like, must be appealed to in order to fully interpret and comprehend the act.
The advent of technical physiological and cognitive psychology certainly has not revolutionized the process of construction of an ethical reality; however, it has both broadened and refined the domain of ethical problems and issues. For instance, increased physiological knowledge and enhanced physiological technology literally have created the area of bioethics, encompassing such subissues as reproductive ethics, genetic engineering, organ transplant ethics, and even the very definition of life itself; increased cognitive knowledge and its utilization via computer modeling and computer simulation have created ethical problems in all Domain of the Ought: Prolegomena 21 sorts of areas: computer privacy, job loss and restructuring due to automation, educational opportunities and performance expectations for the developmentally disadvantaged and the like.
LOCATION OF CAUSE NONPHYSICAL INTERNAL EXTERNAL FOLK PSYCHOLOGY PRIMITIVE ANIMISM SUBSTANTIVE NATURE OF CAUSE PHYSIOLOGICAL MATERIALISM PHYSICAL COGNITIVE RADICAL BEHAVIORISM PSYCHOLOGY Figure 1-2: Some etiological approaches to conduct 18 A Psychological Approach to Ethical Reality The two input dimensions are (1) location of cause and (2) substantive content of cause. Location can be either internal or external. Internal essentially means within the organism under the skin; external means outside the organism in the external environment.
A Psychological Approach to Ethical Reality by K. Hillner