By R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald
The reports during this quantity recommend that each language has an adjective category, yet those fluctuate in personality and in dimension. In its grammatical houses, an adjective classification could beas just like nouns, or to verbs, or to either, or to neither.ze. while in a few languages the adjective category is big and will be freely further to, in others it's small and closed. with only a dozen or so contributors. The booklet will curiosity students and complicated scholars of language typology and of the syntax and semantics of adjectives.
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Extra info for Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology
The O of the transitive verbs corresponds to the prepositional argument in English. For example: (17) Intransitive maarau 'be happy' vu'u 'be clever' vuuvuu 'be jealous' rere 'be afraid' dou 'be brave' Transitive maarau-ta'ina 'be happy about' vu'u-ta'ina 'be clever at' vuuvuu-ta'ina 'be jealous of rere-va'ina 'be afraid of dou-va'ina 'be brave at' Now some verbs in Fijian may choose between two transitive suffixes, which bring different participants into the second core argument slot. g. agun)' 1 Adjective Classes in Typological Perspective 19 A few of the verbs relating to the HUMAN PROPENSITY semantic type can also make a choice of transitive suffix, effectively corresponding to a choice of preposition in English.
Adjectives had been said to be absent from Totonac languages but, applying the principles outlined in this chapter, Levy (Chapter 6) provides a wealth of criteria for distinguishing adjectives as a separate class. D. dissertation on Semelai, Kruspe (1999) did not mention adjectives; applying the criteria from this chapter, she now (Chapter 12) recognizes adjectives as a well-defined sub-class of verbs. Some reputable scholars have stated that adjectives cannot be distinguished from verbs in Korean; the indisputable status of an adjective class in this language is demonstrated by Sohn, in Chapter 9.
7. Languages with restricted functional possibilities for adjectives As described in §3, in the great majority of languages adjectives have two canonical functions: (a) in a statement that something has a certain property, coded through the adjective functioning either as intransitive predicate or as copula complement; (b) as a specification that helps focus on the referent of the head noun in an NP, the adjective functioning as modifier to the head. In a fair number of languages, adjectives can have one or both of two further properties: (c) as the parameter of comparison in a comparative construction; (d) as modifier to a verb, in adverbal function.
Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology by R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald