By R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald
The experiences during this quantity recommend that each language has an adjective category, yet those differ in personality and in measurement. In its grammatical houses, an adjective category could beas just like nouns, or to verbs, or to either, or to neither.ze. while in a few languages the adjective classification is big and will be freely additional to, in others it really is small and closed. with only a dozen or so individuals. The booklet will curiosity students and complex scholars of language typology and of the syntax and semantics of adjectives.
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Extra resources for Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology (Explorations in Linguistic Typology)
Moreover, it is precisely the substantival forms which are the most commonly used'. In other languages, adjectives may be most similar to one of nouns and verbs, but have some properties in common with the other. In Upper Necaxa Totonac, adjectives have grammatical properties similar to those of nouns. g. 'be ashamed') do (Beck 2000: 233-4). In the Australian language Emmi (Ford 1998:139-40), adjectives inflect like nouns but are negated, like verbs, by the particle way (nouns, in contrast, are negated by the negative copula piya).
The principle appears to be that number marking goes on every word in an NP, but gender marking just onto one word (a head noun, if present, otherwise an adjective). Another distinguishing feature is when a given grammatical form has different allomorphs when used with nouns and with adjectives. For example: • In Awa Pit (Barbacoan family, Ecuador/Colombia; Curnow 1997: 91) the 'collective action' suffix has allomorph -tuzpa with a noun, and -tuz on an adjective which makes up a full NP. • In Venda (Bantu; Poulos 1990: 121), both adjectives and nouns take noun class prefixes but with some differences of form; for example, class 15 is shown by hu on an adjective but by u- on a noun.
Adjectives had been said to be absent from Totonac languages but, applying the principles outlined in this chapter, Levy (Chapter 6) provides a wealth of criteria for distinguishing adjectives as a separate class. D. dissertation on Semelai, Kruspe (1999) did not mention adjectives; applying the criteria from this chapter, she now (Chapter 12) recognizes adjectives as a well-defined sub-class of verbs. Some reputable scholars have stated that adjectives cannot be distinguished from verbs in Korean; the indisputable status of an adjective class in this language is demonstrated by Sohn, in Chapter 9.
Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology (Explorations in Linguistic Typology) by R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald